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Otto Fränzle, Ludger Kappen, Hans-Peter Blume, Klaus Dierssen

Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape
Long-Term Research
the Bornhöved Lake District, Germany

Ecological Studies 202, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

Information about the book

Here you will find additional information as refered to by the links in the book about the following chapters:

Ecological Setting of the Study Area
2.2.3 Soil Pattern
For comparison purposes, analytical details are presented for an Eutric Arenosol under tillage (
Table 2.10 Table 2.12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15), Dystri-rheic and Eutri-fibric Histosols (under alder carr or meadow, respectively; Tables 2.12–2.15), Dystri-colluvic Anthrosols (Table 2.16) and an Anthropic Arenosol.

2.3.2 Mixed forest

There are some forest soils in slope position which were under tillage till to the end of the past century. However, in the meantime almost of these sites (Colluvic Anthrosols) also exhibit incipient podzolization (
Table 2.16).

2.3.3 Alder Carrs

Adjacent to the lake, peats have developed in alder carrs. Histosols are associated with Histic, Humic and Arenic Gleysols. The contents of available nutrients are medium to low (Table 2.12). The humus body of the Histosol (Table 2.13), compared with that of the Umbrisol of the beech forest and the Colluvic Anthrosol, has a litter richer in protein due to the occurrence of alder as opposed to beech and spruce. Thus, the formation of carboxylic and phenolic hydroxyl groups is impeded but carbonication and related sink functions for carbon fluxes are supported.

2.3.4 Agroecosystems

On the agricultural sites studied, the initial substrates of soil formation are sandy to loamy tills and fluvioglacial sands as well as colluvial material. Rubic Arenosols, Eutric Luvisols and Colluvic Anthrosols have developed as soil units. The agricultural site A3 has an Eutri-rubic Arenosol, characterized by humus accumulation, decarbonization down to a depth of 3 m, acidification, and brownification. In this soil unit, the penetrability for roots is high, the available water capacity medium and the contents of available nutrients are medium to low (
Table 2.10). The humus body of the Eutri-colluvic Arenosol is comparatively rich in proteins, but poor in other litter substances (Table 2.11). More than 60% of the humus body consists of humified substances, whereas the average of  Schleswig–Holstein amounts to 45% on arable land. The high albuminous content is presumably caused by a high content of living biomass.

2.3.5 Grassland without Groundwater Contact

The prevailing soil unit of the pastures without groundwater contact is the Eutri-colluvic Anthrosol (Table 2.17). Below the Ah, colluvial material accumulated due to former tillage of the slopes. Furthermore, this ecosystem type is characterized by a deep penetrability for roots, a moderately high available water capacity and a high content of available nutrients.

2.3.6 Grassland with Groundwater Contact

The humus body of the Eutri-colluvic Anthrosol reveals an extremely high content of humified substances (Table 2.18); in particular, the valuable humates are dominant. In the subsoil lignins were mainly decomposed, and cellulose even in the topsoil. The relatively high contents of proteins, lipids, and hemi-celluloses in the subsoil werea consequence of the high biological activity at this site. Due to drainage this site is strongly humified in the topsoil. The humus body of the Eutri-fibric Histosol is relatively rich in protein. The contents in fulvates and especially humates are significantly higher than those of the Histosols of the alder forest while high humin contents occur in the deeper subsoil (Table 2.14, Table 2.15)

2.3.7 Hedgerows

Most of the hedgerows were set up on sandy deposits far above the groundwater level but occasionally also in groundwater-influenced positions. Increasing humus contents down to greater depths as well as a strong acidification (in spite of the regular liming of neighbouring agricultural soils) appear typical of the soils of such hedgerows. Analytical data for a sandy Anthropic Arenosol overlying a former Dystric Arenosol are summarized in Table 2.19.

Energetic Setting of Lake Belau and its Drainage Basin

10.3.1 Short-wave Radiation

The spatial integral of radiation estimates yields a total of 18.1 PJ year−1 for the reference area, which has the deliberate quality of a minimum estimate, since the reference year was characterized by a distinct reduction of the potential global radiation on horizontal surfaces from 687 kJ cm−2 year−1 to 310 kJ cm−2 year−1. Table 10.1 provides, in an exemplary manner for 1990, an overview of the seasonal variability of the net radiation of the drainage basin, defining the monthly maximum and minimum values as a function of exposure and slope

Macronutrient and Carbon Fluxes Nitrogen Fluxes and Balance Estimates

Altogether the above figures substantiate, in comparison with data reported by Seitzinger (1988) which vary between 3% and 62%, that nitrogen retention in Lake Belau is comparatively high and the lake plays a considerable role as a purifying unit in the Bornhöved lake system (Table 10.2).

Micronutrients and Trace Elements

On the whole the concentrations of the particulate trace element fractions remain largely constant during the autumnal circulation, only Cu and Zn exhibit distinctly higher concentrations in the lower sediment traps, which is indicative of proportionally higher flux rates in comparison with those of Cd, Ba and Pb. Basically the difference observed seems to be due to rapid release of Cu and Zn from newly deposited biodetritus and a subsequent re-sedimentation in lower parts of the water column. Table 10.3 summarizes the annual flux rates of the above and some further elements for the 1993–1994 period.

Addenda to the above data are foreseen in relation to current research activities in the Bornhöved Lake District.