Fisheries and Ecosystems Approach
Definitions: Fishery – includes marine resources that can be used these are: fish, shellfish, clams, corals and many more living organisms which are used for many purposes.10
Over 70 % of global stocks are over fished that number includes ∼10 % that are depleted severely.
Fish stocks may suffer because of:
- Pollution coming from land
- Marine habitat alternation and also destruction
- Non-sustainable and destructive fishing techniques for example trawling
- Global climate change
- We can’t manage fish
- We can’t manage climate
- We can’t manage the ecosystem
BUT WE CAN MANAGE HUMAN ACTIVITIES -> Sustainable Fisheries9
Establishing an Ecosystem Approach to Management: "North Sea example"
Bergen Declaration – Fifth International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea8
During that meeting repentances of different countries agree that management of North Sea will be guided by the conceptual framework. That guidelines are set out in Annex 2, which includes:
- the development of general and operational environmental goals;
- best use of available scientific and technical knowledge about the structure and function of the ecosystem;
- best use of scientific advice;
- integrated expert assessment;
- coordinated and integrated monitoring;
- involvement of all stakeholders; and
- policy decisions and control and enforcement.