Social Psychology and Political Psychology

Department of Psychology at the Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel

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Prof. Dr. Bernd Simon


Prof. Dr. Bernd Simon - Foto

"Mission statement"

Short biography

Professor of Social Psychology and Political Psychology

Institute of Psychology
Kiel University
Olshausenstr. 62 (visitors)
Room 406
24118 Kiel
Olshausenstr. 40 (mail)
24098 Kiel

+49 (0)431 880 2976 (office)
+49 (0)431 880 3972 (secretary)
+49 (0)431 880 3971 (fax)
+49 (0)172 5349283 (mobile phone)

simon [at]

Office hours: Wednesdays, 05:00pm - 06:00pm
(During non-lecture period according to notice).

Office hours will be operated BY PHONE until further notice: +49 (0)431 880 2976

Next office hour during non-lecture period: Wednesday, 19th August, 05:00pm - 06:00pm by phone.

Selected publications

  • Simon, B. (2020). A new perspective on intergroup conflict: The social psychology of politicized struggles for recognition. Theory & Psychology, 30, 147-163.

  • Schaefer, C. D., & Simon, B. (2020). Muslims’ experiences of equality recognition in Germany: Effects on identification with the larger society and on equality recognition of other societal subgroups.
    Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 26, 32–41.

  • Simon, B., Reininger, K. M., Schaefer, C. D., Zitzmann, S. & Krys, S. (2019). Politicization as an antecedent of polarization: Evidence from two different political and national contexts.
    British Journal of Social Psychology, 58, 769-785.

  • Eschert, S. & Simon, B. (2019). Respect and political disagreement: Can intergroup respect reduce the biased evaluation of outgroup arguments? PLoS ONE, 14.

  • Paffrath, J. & Simon, B. (2019). Ablehnung und Respekt: Wechselseitige Zumutungen der Toleranz [Disapproval and respect: Mutual challenges of tolerance]. schulmanagement, 50, 12-14.

  • Simon, B., Eschert, S., Schaefer, C. D., Reininger, K. M., Zitzmann, S. & Smith, H. J. (2019). Disapproved, but tolerated: The role of respect in outgroup tolerance.
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45, 406-415.

  • Simon, B. (2018). A realistic view on disagreement: Roots, resolutions, and the trauma of the scientist. Theory & Psychology, 28, 496-509.

  • Simon, B., Mommert, A. & Reininger, K. M. (2018). Politicization in the name of the majority: The role of cultural, economic, and political grievances. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 6, 205-223.

  • Simon, B. & Schaefer, C. D. (2018). Muslims’ tolerance towards outgroups: Longitudinal evidence for the role of respect. British Journal of Social Psychology, 57, 240-249.

  • Simon, B. (2017). Grundriss einer sozialpsychologischen Respekttheorie: Implikationen für Kooperation und Konflikt in pluralistischen Gesellschaften [Outline of a social psychological theory of respect: Implications for cooperation and conflict in pluralistic societies]. Psychologische Rundschau, 68, 241-250.

  • Renger, D., Renger, S., Miché, M., & Simon, B (2017). A social recognition approach to autonomy: The role of equality-based respect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 479-492.

  • Simon, B., Brause, A.-C., & Galeão-Silva, L. G. (2016). Contextualizing the meaning of respect: The case of evangelicals in Brazil / Contextualización del significado del respeto: El caso de la comunidad evangélica de Brasil. Revista de Psicología Social / International Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 399-422.

  • Simon, B. (2016). Ablehnung von Homosexualität: Vorurteil, Respekt, Politisierung (Disapproval of homosexuality: Prejudice, respect, politicization). WestEnd – Neue Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, 2, 95-105.

  • Simon, B. & Schaefer, C. D. (2016). Tolerance as a function of disapproval and respect: The case of Muslims. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55, 375-383.

  • Simon, B., Mommert, A., & Renger, D. (2015). Reaching across group boundaries: Respect from outgroup members facilitates recategorization as a common group. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 616-628.

  • Simon, B., Grabow, H., & Böhme, N. (2015). On the meaning of respect for sexual minorities: The case of gays and lesbians. Psychology & Sexuality, 6, 297-310.

  • Simon, B., Reichert, F., Schaefer, C. D., Bachmann, A., & Renger, D. (2015). Dual identification and the (de-)politicization of migrants: Longitudinal and comparative evidence. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 25, 193-203.

  • Simon, B. (2014). Identität und Macht: Wann und warum Repression akzeptiert wird. (Identity and power: When and why repression is accepted.) osteuropa, 64, 63-72.

  • Bachmann, A. & Simon, B. (2014). Society matters: The mediational role of social recognition in the relationship between victimization and life satisfaction among gay men. European Journal of Social Psychology, 44,195-201.

  • Simon, B. & Grabow, H. (2014). To be respected and to respect: The challenge of mutual respect in intergroup relations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 39-53.

  • Simon, B., Reichert, F., & Grabow, O. (2013). When dual identity becomes a liability: Identity and political radicalism among migrants. Psychological Science, 24, 251-257.

  • Azzi, A., Chryssochoou, X., Klandermans, B., & Simon B. (Eds.) (2011). Identity and participation in culturally diverse societies: A multidisciplinary perspective. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell

  • Simon, B. & Grabow, O. (2010). The politicization of migrants: Further evidence that politicized collective identity is a dual identity. Political Psychology, 31, 717-738.

  • Simon, B. (2010). Respekt und Zumutung bei der Begegnung von Schwulen/Lesben und Muslimen (Respect and demands in encounters between gays/lesbians and Muslims). Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 15-16, 27-32.

  • Simon, B. & Ruhs, D. (2008). Identity and politicization among Turkish migrants in Germany: The role of dual identification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1354-1366.

  • Simon, B., Trötschel, R. & Dähne, D. (2008). Identity affirmation and social movement support. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 935-946.

  • Simon, B. (2008). Einstellungen zur Homosexualität: Ausprägungen und psychologische Korrelate bei Jugendlichen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund (ehemalige UdSSR und Türkei). Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie, 40, 87-99.

  • Simon, B. & Trötschel, R. (2007). Das Selbst und die soziale Identität. In K. Jonas, W. Stroebe & M. Hewstone (Hrsg.) Sozialpsychologie, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

  • Simon, B. (2007). Respect, equality, and power: A social psychological perspective. Gruppendynamik und Organisationsberatung – Zeitschrift für angewandte Sozialpsychologie, 38, 309-326.

  • Simon, B. (2007). Macht: Zwischen aktiver Gestaltung und Missbrauch. Göttingen: Hogrefe Verlag.

  • Simon, B. (2004). Identity in modern society. A social psychological perspective. Oxford: Blackwell

  • Simon, B. (2007). Macht, Identität und Respekt. In B. Simon (Hrsg.): Macht: Zwischen aktiver Gestaltung und Missbrauch. Göttingen: Hogrefe Verlag.

  • Simon, B. & Oakes, P. (2006). Beyond dependence: An identity approach to social power and domination. Human Relations, 59, 105-139.

  • Simon, B., Lücken, M. & Stürmer, S. (2006). The added value of respect: Reaching across inequality. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 535-546.

  • Simon, B., & Klein, L. (2006). Identity in German right-wing extremism: Levels, functions, and processes. In B. Klandermans & N. Mayer (Eds.), Extreme right activists in Europe: Through the magnifying glass. London: Routledge.

  • Simon, B. & Trötschel, R. (2006). Soziale Identität. In H.-W. Bierhoff & D. Frey (Hrsg.), Handbuch der Sozialpsychologie und Kommunikationspsychologie. Göttingen: Hogrefe Verlag.

  • Simon, B. & Stürmer, S. (2003). Respect for group members: Intragroup determinants of collective identification and group-serving behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 183-193.

  • Simon, B. & Klandermans, B. (2001). Politicized collective identity: A social psychological analysis. American Psychologist, 56, 319-331.

  • Kampmeier, C. & Simon, B. (2001). Individuality and group formation: The role of independence and differentiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 448-462.

  • Lücken, M. & Simon, B. (2005). Cognitive and affective experiences of minority and majority members: The role of group size, status, and power. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 396-413.

Current research projects

Current research interests

    Self and Identity
  • individualization and social categorization

  • individual and collective identities

    Intra- and Intergroup Processes
  • respect and cooperation

  • power

  • minority-majority relations

  • intergroup and intercultural contact

    Civic and Political Participation
  • volunteerism

  • collective action, protest, social movement participation