of animals in general
morphology and anatomy of vertebrates
specific adaptive radiation
changes due to domestication
proportional bauplan of the body, the
skull, and the brain between and within species
and function of the large sensory organs of the head in mammals
of brain and behaviour
of altricial versus precocial ontogenesis
through allometrical methods
in scientific societies:
Society of Mammalogy (DGS) since 1965, honory membership 2005
American Society of Mammalogists (ASM)1976-2005
German Zoological Society (DZG) 1981-2003
Society for Neuroscience (SFN) since 1987; since 2005 emeritus member
International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO) since 1987
Editor-in-chief of the international scientific journal Mammalian Biology
(formerly: Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde ), Urban und Fischer
Verlag, Jena, from 1978 to 2008
13.12.1939 born in Königsberg / East Prussia, Germany (now Kaliningrad,
early youth in Masuren, East Prussia, Germany (now Mazury, Poland) in
the vicinity of Sensburg (now Mragowo); escape of the family from the
region due to World War II; arrival and settlement at Itzehoe, Schleswig-Holstein,
elementary school at Itzehoe
gymnasium for boys at Itzehoe
military duty at Tank Artl. Btl. Boostedt
enrolment at the University of Kiel, study of zoology, botany, anthropology,
mathematics, chemistry, geography
first examination to become a teacher at German gymnasia in biology and
stipendium of the German Research Foundation (DFG) at the Institut für
Haustierkunde, University of Kiel (Director: Prof. Dr. Dr. W. HERRE)
Research Associate, Akad. Rat, Akad. O´Rat of the Medical Highschool
Hannover at the Institute for Zoology of the Veterinary Highschool Hannover
(Director: Prof. Dr. M. RÖHRS); administrative duties, research,
Dissertation thesis and promotion to Dr. rer. nat. at the University of
Habilitation at the Veterinary Highschool Hannover and Venia legendi
for Zoology, appointment as Priv. Doz. Dr. rer. nat. habil.
call for a chair as professor in Zoology, especially of Domestication
Research and director of the Institut für Haustierkunde (successor
of Prof. Dr. Dr. W. HERRE) at the University of Kiel
acceptance of the call, appointment as Professor and Director of the Institut
für Haustierkunde, University of Kiel; since then keeping this position
administrating the institute, research on special issues, and teaching
zoology for students of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
as well as of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences
KRUSKA, D., LANGE, J. (1967): Contribution to the artificial rearing of
canid whelps (Canis aureus L., 1758). Zool. Garten (NF)
M., KRUSKA, D. (1969): The influence of domestication on the central nervous
system and on the behaviour of the domestic pig. Dtsch. Tierärztl.
W`schr. 75: 514–518.
(1970): Comparative cytoarchitectonical investigations in brains of wild
and domestic pigs. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 131: 291-324.
(1970): On the evolution of the artiodactylian brain with special reference
to the Suina Gray, 1868. Z. Säugetierkunde 35: 214–238.
(1972): Volumetric comparison of some visual centers in the brains of
wild boars and domestic pigs. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 138:
(1973): Cerebralisation, evolution of the brain and changes in brain size
due to domestication within the order Perissodactyla Owen, 1848 and a
comparison with the order Artiodactyla Owen, 1848. Z. zool. Syst.
Evolut.-forsch. 11: 81-103.
(1973): Size changes of several brain structures in pigs due to domestication.
In: MATOLCSI, J. (ed.). Domestication Research and History of Domestic
Animals. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest: 135–140.
STEPHAN, H. (1973): Volumetric comparison of allocortical centers in the
brains of wild boars and domestic pigs. Acta anat. 84: 387–415.
RÖHRS, M. (1974): Comparative – quantitative investigations
on brains of feral pigs from the Galapagos Islands and of European domestic
pigs. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 144: 61–73.
(1975): On the postnatal development of the brain of Procyon cancrivorus
cancrivorus (Procyonidae; Mammalia). Z. Säugetierkunde
(1975): Comparative-quantitative investigations on brains of Norway and
laboratoy rats. I. Volumetric comparison of total brain and the fundamental
brain parts. J. Hirnforsch. 16. 469–483.
(1975): Comparative-quantitative investigations on brains of Norway and
laboratory rats. II. Volumetric comparison of allocortical centers in
the brain. J. Hirnforsch. 16: 485–496.
KRUSKA, D. (1975): Comparative allometrical investigations on the skulls
of Norway and laboratory rats. Zool. Anz. 195: 124–144.
(1977): On the postnatal development of the brain of the farm mink Mustela
vison f. dom. (Mustelidae; Mammalia). Z. Säugetierkunde
SCHOTT, U. (1977): Comparative-quantitative investigations on brains of
Norway and laboraty rats. III. Volumetric comparison of visual brain centers.
J. Hirnforsch. 18: 59–67.
R., KRUSKA, D. (1979): On the postnatal development of the brain of the
ferret Mustela putorius f. furo (Mustelidae; Mammalia). Z.
Säugetierkunde 44: 127–131.
(1979): Comparative investigations on skulls of subadult and adult farm
mink, Mustela vison f. dom. (Mustelidae; Carnivora). Z. Säugetierkunde
(1980): Changes of brain size in mammals due to domestication. Z.
zool. Syst. Evolut.-forsch. 18: 161–195.
(1982): Changes of brain size in Tylopoda during phylogeny and caused
by domestication. Verh. Dtsch. Zool. Ges. 1982: 173-183.
(1982): On the brain of the pigmy hog, Sus (Porcula)
salvanius Hodgson, 1847. A contribution on problems concerning
comparative brain investigations in mammals of different body size.
Z. zool. Syst. Evolut.-Forsch. 20: 1-12.
(1987): How fast can total brain size change in mammals? J. Hirnforsch.
(1987): Something about mink. Schweizer Tierschutz 114: 3–18.
(1988): Mammalian domestication and its effect on brain structure and
behavior. In: JERISON, H.J., JERISON, I. (eds.). The Evolutionary
Biology of Intelligence. Nato ASI series in Ecology G17. Springer-Verlag,
Berlin, Heidelberg: 211-250.
(1988): Effects of domestication on brain structure and behavior in mammals.
Human Evolution 3: 473–485.
(1988): On the brain of the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus).
Brain Behav. Evol. 32: 353-363.
(1988): Mustelids. In: KEIENBURG, W. (ed.). Grzimek`s Encyclopedia.
Mammals. Bd. 3. Kindler-Verlag, München: 388–447.
(1989): Alteration of mammalian brains effected by captivity?. In: SCHNEIDER,
E., OELKE, H., GROSS, H. (eds.). The Illusion of Noah`s Arche.
Echo-Verlag, Göttingen: 87-105.
(1990): Mustelids. In: PARKER, S.P. (ed.). Grzimek`s Encyclopedia
of Mammals. Vol. 3. MacGraw-Hill, New York: 388–447.
(1990): Effects of the domestication on brain and behaviour of mammals.
Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin, R. Math./Nat. Wiss. 39: 389–393.
D., KRUSKA, D. (1990): Volumetric comparison of auditory structures in
the brains of European wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs
(Sus scrofa f. dom.) Brain Behav. Evol. 13: 25-34.
(1993): Evidence of decrease in brain size in ranch mink, Mustela
vison f. dom., during subadult postnatal ontogenesis. Brain Behav.
Evol. 41: 303-315.
(1996): The effect of domestication on brain size and composition in the
mink (Mustela vison). J. Zool. (London) 239: 645-661.
SCHREIBER, A. (1999): Comparative morphometrical and biochemical-genetic
investigations in wild and ranch mink (Mustela vison: Carnivora:
Mammalia). Acta Theriol. 44: 377-392.
K., KRUSKA, D., TIEDEMANN, R. (2001): Postnatal brain size decrease, visual
performance, learning, and discrimination ability of juvenile and adult
American mink (Mustela vison: Carnivora: Mammalia). Mamm.
biol. 66: 269-280.
SIDOROVICH, V.E. (2003): Comparative allometric skull morphometrics in
mink (Mustela vison Schreber, 1777) of Canadian and Belarus origin;
taxonomic status. Mamm. biol. 68: 257-276.
(2005): On the evolutionary significance of encephalization in some eutherian
mammals: effects of adaptive radiation, domestication, and feralization.
Brain Behav. Evol. 65: 73-108.
(2007): The Effects of Domestication on Brain Size. In: KAAS, J.H., KRUBITZER,
L.A. (eds.). Evolution of Nervous Systems. Vol. 3 Mammals.
Academic Press, New York: 143-153.
STEFFEN, K. (2009): Encephalization of Bathyergidae and comparison of
brain structure volumes between the Zambian mole-rat Fukomys anselli
and the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii. Mamm. biol.
(2011): Evolution, Domestikation und Feralisation. Auswirkungen auf das
Gehirn bei placentalen Säugetieren. Naturw. Rdsch. 64: 397-408.
STEFFEN, K. (2013): Comparative allometric investigations on the skulls
of wild cavies (Cavia aperea) versus domesticated guinea pigs
(Cavia aperea f. porcellus) with comments on the domestication
of this species. Mammal. Biol. 78: 178-186.
KRUSKA, D.C.T. (2014): Comparative Quantitative
Investigations on Brains of Wild Cavies (Cavia aperea) and Guinea
Pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). A Contribution to
Size Changes of CNS Structures due to Domestication. Mamm. Biol.
of the "Institut für Haustierkunde" (Institute for Domestication
and further development of the Institute for Domestication Research in
Kiel, a unique zoological institution worldwide, are inseparably connected
with the zoologist Prof. Dr.Dr.h.c. WOLF HERRE (1909-1997) as well as
with historical events and constellations at the University of Kiel.
The Christian-Albrechts-University was re-opened after World War II on
November 27, 1945 in the massively destroyed city of Kiel. The Zoological
Institute and Museum at that time belonged to the Philosophical Faculty
and since 1935 ADOLF REMANE from Halle/Saale, was chair person. In the
early post-war period, A. REMANE could not fulfil his duties actively
due to obligations as a substitute Professor of Zoology at the University
of Leipzig during the winter of 1944 / 45. Back in Kiel, he was arrested
by the allies. However, previous to these events he had appointed the
zoology lecturer Dr. phil. WOLF HERRE as assistant curator. In September
1945, W. HERRE replaced A. REMANE and was appointed provisional professor
of the Zoological Institute and Museum. Well bestowed with organizational
abilities, he, together with the energetic help from his students, rebuilt
the institution from ruins in spite of minimal financial support. In 1948,
REMANE, upon his return, received from HERRE a functioning institution.
The Agricultural Faculty had already been founded in 1946, enabling students
to study agricultural sciences at Kiel University. The lectures in zoology
as well as in the anatomy and physiology of domestic animals were given
by W. HERRE in addition to his regular duties. At the instigation of the
deans of the Philosophical and Agricultural Faculties the Institute for
Domestication Research was founded on March 24, 1947 and associated with
both faculties, being a bridge institute with obligations both in research
and teaching. Having rejected the chair manship of domestication research
at the University of Halle, W. HERRE was appointed its director, at first
as a university lecturer from March 1, 1951 then chair Professor of Zoology,
specifically for Domestication Research. He became a full member of both
the Philosophical and the Agricultural Faculty. The foundation of the
Institute for Domestication Research fitted well with HERRE’s scientific
interests. From 1927 to 1932 he studied zoology at Halle and Graz (Austria)
and in 1932 earned his PhD at Halle under the chair professorship of the
zoologist Prof. Dr.phil Dr.med. h.c. Dr.agr. h.c. BERTHOLD KLATT (later
chair professor of zoology in Hamburg) in Halle. His inauguration (zoology
and comparative anatomy) took place in 1935 under the chair professorship
of A. REMANE, who, at the time, was still at the University of Halle.
HERRE worked as a lecturer at Halle until he was conscripted for military
service. When he was released from captivity in Schleswig-Holstein late
in the summer of 1945, he came to Kiel looking for employment.
From his early years, HERRE had been interested in basic zoological questions,
particularly concerned with the phylogeny and evolutionary diversification
of the animal kingdom and in speciation processes. Under the influence
of CHARLES DARWIN’s theory of evolution and inspired by the research
of B. KLATT and several other zoologists and animal breeders he realized
and made use of the possibility of illustrating intraspecific variability,
the range of adaptive capacity and the mutability of the animal organism
with the help of the diversity of races in domestic animals. The phenomenon
of domestication interpreted in the zoological sense and the impact of
domestication on human cultural history became HERRE’s central research
topics. He and his students conducted a wide variety of studies on stem
species of domestic animals, comparisons of the variability of wild and
domesticated forms and qualitative and quantitative changes of organs
and proportions due to the process of domestication. During his professorship,
W. HERRE educated numerous teachers and in total 120 PhD students, among
the latter renowned museum and zoo directors, paleozoologists, protozoologists,
brain researchers, game biologists and professors of human anatomy, human
physiology, and zoology. Research was originally based on comparative
anatomical methods, but eventually also on methods of physiology, ethology,
and breeding biology. Domestication research , under the tutelage of W.
HERRE, underwent a resurrection as a distinct discipline of evolutionary
zoology and was thoroughly dealt with by him. The results were documented
in the book „Haustiere – zoologisch gesehen“ („Domesticated
animals - from the viewpoint of zoology“) by W. HERRE and M. RÖHRS
(Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1990), the co-author being the former
chair person of the Institute for Zoology at the Veterinary Highschool,
Hannover. W. HERRE’s achievements led to him being held in high
esteem by his colleagues both in Germany and abroad, while W. HERRE himself
always kept the institution, in particular his Alma mater, as first priority.
From the very beginning, wolves and dogs were W. HERRE’s favourite
animals and study objects. His affectionate interest in live animals prompted
him to search for a possibility of maintaining animals in captivity for
behavioural studies. He succeeded in having a number of enclosures installed,
the so-called „Haustiergarten“ (a small zoo for domestic animals)
including a small staff of animal keepers. According to his preference
for natural history museums, the Institute for Domestication Research
was not only equipped with several laboratories but also with a special
dissecting facility employing curators and taxidermists. In this facility,
zoological objects are prepared for scientific analysis and included in
the institute’s extensive and diversified collections. These collections
are still being used by members of the institute staff today. There have
also been numerous requests by international scientists for this material.
Based on the broad range of zoological interests, archaeozoological questions
became another focus of the institute. This discipline deals with animal
remains from early human settlements and draws conclusions as to the occurrence
of wild and domestic animals and their exploitation. In the beginning,
this was only done occasionally by W. HERRE himself and some of his PhD
students, but later led to a co-operation with the Institute of Pre- and
Protohistory and the Archaeological Museum (“Landesmuseum”)
in Gottorf castle / Schleswig, resulting in the foundation of a staffed
archaeozoological study group at the Institute for Domestication Research
with an exhaustive comparative collection of bones of extant wild and
domestic animals, particularly mammals, birds, and fishes. Head of the
study group was Dr. HANS REICHSTEIN who retired in 1994 and was followed
by Prof. Dr. DIRK HEINRICH (lecturer since 1996/ professor since 2005).
Applied research with a predominantly local focus has also been supported
and conducted by many staff members. In January 1954 the Avian Conservation
Observatory (Staatliche Vogelschutzwarte Schleswig-Holstein) was founded
and assigned to the Institute for Domestication Research, in spite of
being a Department of the Ministry. Its objectives were the biology, distribution
and population dynamics of the avian species in Schleswig-Holstein. For
the indigenous mammals, corresponding research began much later –
conducted by the externally funded Research Centre for Game Biology.
The Institute for Domestication Research has - parallel to the development
of the university in Kiel - seen good and bad times. The former were characterized
by appointments of scientists and a general increase in staff numbers.
W. HERRE was even able to keep some of his students as assistants, lecturers
or in other positions, until their retirement. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. HERWART
BOHLKEN (lecturer from 1962-1968, professor since 1968), was particularly
interested in comparative anatomy and game biology, but was mainly occupied
with administrative and organisational problems, the co-ordination of
game biological and ethological projects as well as teaching of general
and systematic zoology. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. WOLFHARD SCHULTZ (lecturer
from 1970-1974, professor since 1974), well-known for his comparative
studies on the mammalian digestive system, became head of the Avian Conservation
Observatory and was committed to questions of nature conservation and
the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna
and Flora (CITES) regarding vertebrates. He had a special interest in
the biology of whales and bats, taught extensively in zoology and led
many field trips for students. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. EBERHARD HAASE (lecturer
from 1972-1975, and since then professor) also stayed at the institute,
working in his specialities physiology and endocrinology and also teaching
and attending to graduate students. Mrs. Dr. med. vet. DORIT U. FEDDERSEN-PETERSEN
(since 1975), who was trained as a veterinarian at the Veterinary Highschool
in Hannover, is responsible for the “Haustiergarten”; her
research mainly focuses on the ethology of the Canidae.
In 1976, due to a new university law, the institute was incorporated into
the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences while the teaching obligations
in zoology remained for the students of the Agricultural Faculty.
At the end of the 1977 summer term, W. HERRE retired at the age of 68.
Nonetheless, he kept working at the institute and could be seen in his
office every day. In March 1997, on the occasion of the institute’s
50th anniversary, the staff members organized a party in his honour. Representatives
of the university, politicians, and - most importantly - all his still
living pupils were invited. W. HERRE was deeply moved. He died on November
12, 1997 in Frankfurt, suddenly and, being physically and mentally in
good condition, unexpectedly, at the age of 88.
It took several years until a successor was appointed Professor of Zoology,
specifically for Domestication Research. Negotiations with MANFRED RÖHRS
(then professor and director of the Institute for Zoology at the Veterinary
Highschool, Hannover) failed as did those with KLAUS IMMELMANN (at the
time professor and director of the Institute for Behavioural Research
at Bielefeld University). Eventually, on October 22, 1981, after a renewed
advertising, Dr. rer. nat. habil. DIETER KRUSKA, lecturer at the Institute
for Zoology of the Veterinary Highschool in Hannover, was appointed chair
professor and director of the Institute for Domestication Research (starting
from October 1, 1982).
In August 1992, W. SCHULTZ passed away. As his successor, a zoologist
renowned for molecular genetic studies in zoology, domestication research,
and game biology was sought. Prof. Dr. GÜNTHER B. HARTL, lecturer
of population genetics at the Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology at
the Veterinary Medicine University in Vienna, was appointed to this position.
He has been director and professor of zoology at the Institute for Domestication
Research since November 1, 1994.
In 1994, H. BOHLKEN retired, and, in the course of general economy measures,
his position, along with others, had to be cancelled. Consequently, research
activity became concentrated on the institute’s central scientific
issues. The Avian Conservation Observatory became independent of the Institute
for Domestication Research, and the Research Centre for Game Biology was
no longer sustained.
During its history, the Institute for Domestication Research has been
located at different sites in Kiel: from 1947 to 1959 in provisional and
temporary quarters of the former Anatomical Institute near the present
Zoological Museum at Kiel Fjord; from 1959 to 1982 on two floors of a
new building of the Agricultural Faculty at Olshausenstrasse in front
of the present parking lot “Alter Haustiergarten”; since 1982
in initially three, then two upper floors of the Biology Centre after
staff reduction, with a new zoo for domestic animals next to the new botanical
In March 2005 Prof. Dr. rer. nat. DIETER KRUSKA and Prof. Dr. rer. nat.
EBERHARD HAASE retired and the Institute for Domestication Research was
closed and the staff members became integrated in the Institute of Zoology.