In the summer semester 2021, the majority of teaching is continued in digital form. Everything that can be realised digitally will also be implemented digitally. Presence formats are offered under the applicable hygiene regulations where the acquisition of scientific practices cannot be replaced digitally (e.g. laboratory internships). International applicants who begin their studies at Kiel University must note important information regarding entry into the Federal Republic of Germany due to Corona. Should you enter Germany from a risk area (a list of risk areas can be found here), you are subject to strict quarantine rules.
- Advice Centres
- Contact data collection
- Compensation for disadvantages
- Compulsory attendance
- Free attempt regulation
- General rules of conduct
- Individual Workstations for students
- Master's degree, preliminary enrolment
- Risk groups and pregnancy
- Schools and Kindergarten
- Standard period of study ("free semester")
- Stays abroad and travel returnees
When present on the CAU campus, various measures to reduce the risk of infection must be strictly adhered to:
- For your own protection and in the interest of everyone, you must keep a minimum distance of 1.5m and observe the known hygiene measures (regular hand washing, cough and sneeze labels, wearing mouth-nose covers).
- Obligation to wear masks: Due to the current regulations of the state of Schleswig-Holstein, a general obligation to wear masks applies to contain the cases of infection on the university campus (inside and outside in the direct vicinity of the buildings). This now also applies during courses.
- Special rules for cohorts: In the winter semester 2020/21, forming cohorts is envisaged in individual cases. If you belong to a so-called cohort, then other rules may apply to you which you will be kept informed about.
- Contact data: Please enter your telephone number in the CAU portal or check whether the number you have provided is up to date, so that the health authorities can reach you as soon as possible in the event of an infection www.uni-kiel.de/hisinone. Please also ensure that your contact details always remain up to date afterwards. When you attend lectures or other events at the university, please make use of the contact tracing using the QR code or the URL you can find in the rooms and please enter your contact details in the OpenOLAT page provided.
We would like to point out that the measures listed above must be strictly observed on the university premises.
In particular, you must not enter the university campus or any CAU building if you are suffering from a respiratory illness which cannot be classified simply as a slight cold or which can clearly be related to illnesses other than a COVID-19 infection.
If you are uncertain, please have your symptoms checked by a doctor. First contact your doctor by telephone. If you have any further questions, please get in touch with the contact point set up especially for you: Sandra Elstner, firstname.lastname@example.org .
If you feel ill and are unsure whether you are allowed to take an examination or attend a course on site, please make use of the sniffels plan (English will follow shortly) and follow the instructions given under General rules of conduct .
If you have travelled domestically to a region with a high (> 50 infection cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the past seven days) or very high incidence, you are currently not legally prohibited from entering the campus or participating in events. However, if digital alternatives are available, we would like to appeal to your sense of responsibility to make use of such offers as far as possible, and to act extremely considerately.
If you have recently arrived from a foreign high-risk area, you are subject to the current state legal provisions for outgoing and returning travellers and must immediately enter quarantine, which typically lasts for 14 days. For details, please refer to the coronavirus information pages of the state of Schleswig-Holstein (German only).
To support the start of your studies in the winter semester 2020/21, the CAU offers information and advice about studying under coronavirus conditions.
- For new students/freshers: Basic information to help you prepare for your studies is offered by the Central Academic Advisors (ZSB) in individual and group appointments. The conversations take place via telephone or video conference. For more detailed information, please go to this website: www.zsb.uni-kiel.de.
You will find a useful check list as well as a practical guide with first steps to help you prepare for your studies on the PerLe website of the Project for Successful Teaching and Learning at www.perle.uni-kiel.de.
- For all CAU students: An overview of useful e-learning applications and tools for digital learning and joint virtual work in teaching events is available(German only). In addition, the Central Academic Advisors (ZSB) are always available to help with general and specific questions. You can also contact other advisory bodies located near the CAU: www.beratung.uni-kiel.de.
- The CAU has appointed a contact person to assist new and returning students with their general questions on topics arising from the new academic situation created by the coronavirus pandemic. If you have general questions about studying in corona times, or about the associated challenges, you are welcome to contact Ms Sandra Elstner via email@example.com or at 0431 880-5931. You can find further information at www.qe.uni-kiel.de/de/beratung-studium-corona (German only).
- Helpline of the University outpatient clinic for psychotherapy (HPK):
+49 (0)431/22180024 (Mo: 12:00 – 1:00 p.m., Thu: 1:30 - 2:30 p.m.
- Student Advisory Service (German only)
- Internship Abroad
- Examination Offices (German only)
- Social Advice Centre of Studentenwerk
- Student Advisory Service at the Teacher Training Centre (German only)
- Student Advisory Service (according to subject) (German only)
- Student Advisory Service for students with disabilities/chronic illness (German only)
The collection of contact data is carried out in accordance with §5 of the requirements of the "Land Ordinance on Special Measures to Prevent the Spread of the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at Universities":
"(2) The contact data of participants shall be collected for courses, other events, examinations and the use of student workplaces at the university. The data shall be collected and stored in such a way that the date and time of collection, first name and surname, address and, if available, telephone number or e-mail address can be traced for a period of four weeks. After this period, the data must be destroyed. Upon request, they are to be forwarded to the authority responsible for protection against infection if this is necessary for the purpose of tracing possible infection routes. It must be ensured that unauthorised third parties do not gain knowledge of the data collected. Any other use is not permitted. The institution of higher education shall exclude persons who refuse to have their contact data collected from visiting or using the institution or from participating in the event. Any contact data provided to the higher education institution must be truthful; in the case of official activities, official contact data is sufficient."
The registration of contact data can be started via a QR code or by calling up the respective room-specific URL. Once the process has been successfully completed, you will receive a confirmation message with a green background.
You will then receive a confirmation e-mail from OLAT with a summary and information on data protection. Please keep this confirmation e-mail for 28 days to be able to support the tracking of your contact data yourself if necessary.
The CAU will only forward the information you have provided to the authority responsible for infection control to the requesting authority if requested to do so by that authority. Your attendance details are stored separately and are not linked to your user account and cannot be viewed by lecturers or course administrators.
28 days later, the collected contact details are automatically deleted.
In the event that digital contact data collection via Olat is not possible, e.g. system failure or lack of Internet connection, registration lists on paper are prepared by the teachers.
- in particular life situations (pregnancy, bringing up children, caring for relatives)
- with chronic illness/disability
- who experience corona-related disadvantages (long-term restrictions, e.g. membership of risk groups, lack of technical equipment, and acute restrictions, e.g. quarantine)
have the opportunity to apply for disadvantage compensation for courses and examinations.
How does the application process work?
Please submit your request in good time (if possible well before the date of the course/exam) to the responsible authorities listed below and ask about the exact procedure:
- In case of acute restrictions, please consult your teacher first to discuss how to proceed. If you miss course dates in courses requiring attendance, please clarify first whether the absence is excusable within the framework of the absence regulations without having to submit an application for disadvantage compensation.
- For long-term restrictions, please contact the Examinations Office responsible for your degree programme (German only). Students of medicine and dentistry should contact the Dean of Studies of the Faculty of Medicine.
Then, please submit directly an informal application for disadvantage compensation to the responsible authority (see above), explaining your restrictions. Please enclose proof and, if possible, medical recommendations for suitable compensatory measures. This will help the chairperson of the examination board and the teachers to find a suitable measure to compensate for disadvantages.
The responsible authorities will take into account whether measures are equivalent to the expected performance and feasible for everyone involved. In some cases this might mean that it is not possible to offer an adequate compensation measure, which is equal and organisationally feasible.
The decision will usually be communicated by stu-Mail. If the decision is positive, the organisational details may have to be discussed with the teacher in the next step.
- Technical problems such as insufficient network coverage or lack of technical equipment: If it is not possible to submit proof, please try to present the restrictions in a plausible way. If possible, you will be offered an alternative yet equivalent assignment; e.g. in the case of examinations, if possible, an attendance date at a later time.
- Members of a risk group: Please submit a medical certificate confirming that you belong to a risk group. If possible, a separate room will be provided for tests taking place on site.
- Acute respiratory symptoms: Please inform yourself first about current regulations and contact the teacher. If you are not allowed to take part in an examination, please submit a medical certificate to the responsible examination office as soon as possible, otherwise to the teacher. If possible, you will be offered a substitute assignment, which is suitable to compensate for absences; e.g. in the case of examinations, if possible, an attendance date at a later time.
- Quarantine: Please submit suitable proof, e.g. official notification or correspondence with an authority. If possible, you will be offered a substitute assignment without presence, virtual participation or an appointment at a later time.
- Ban to enter and leave the country: Please submit suitable proof. If possible, you will be offered a substitute assignment without presence, a virtual participation or an appointment at a later time.
- Pregnancy: Please submit your maternity passport or medical receipts. If possible, a separate room will be provided for you.
Please note that the examples above do not give a right to be granted the exemplary measures. If no suitable disadvantage compensation measure can be offered to you, please use the options of the following examination periods or take the module at a later date.
As for compulsory attendance the requirements of the respective examination regulations of each subject apply; your teachers will inform you of any deviating regulations. Please also note the information on compensation for disadvantages.
Online supervision via web cam
- courses: The compulsory attendance can be checked by name or, if available, by web camera. In contrast to examinations, students are allowed to use a virtual background.
- examinations: If video surveillance is provided for in online examinations, students must be informed in advance and asked for their consent. A virtual background is not permitted.
In the winter semester, attendance examinations are partly replaced by digital examination formats. The responsible teachers will inform you when and in what form the respective examinations will take place.
CAU offers different formats of online examinations during the Corona phase in order to minimise delays in the course of studies due to the pandemic-related restrictions on attendance.
According to § 4 of the Corona Statutes, the types of examinations specified in the respective examination regulations or study regulations can be replaced by other equivalent types of examinations, such as online examinations. The framework conditions for online examinations are additionally regulated in the Corona Supplementary Statute on Electronic Examinations and in the Higher Education Act.
The students are informed in advance by the respective responsible teacher about changed examination formats.
Platforms and video conferencing systems
Some of the online exams take place on the learning platform OpenOLAT or the separately installed exam server (also OpenOLAT). To enable you to familiarise yourself with the technical conditions of an online examination before you take it, the CAU's eLearning Service conducts information events with, among other things, the following content:
- What equipment do I need for e-examinations?
- What happens if I have technical or other problems?
- What do e-exams look like in OpenOLAT?
Information on the dates can be found under "News & Info" in the OpenOLAT learning platform.
BigBlueButton is available as a video conferencing system for online examinations. Information page of the Computing Centre on video conferencing solutions.
Data protection for online examinations
Personal data is processed in accordance with the DSGVO. The data protection declaration for the OpenOLAT Exam Server can be found in the "Imprint" section on the Exam Server.
If students do not agree to the concept of video supervision due to data protection concerns, they can contact their teacher so that it can be checked whether an alternative examination can be found. If this is not possible, e.g. for organisational reasons, the next attendance examination date can be used.
Video supervision for online examinations
In accordance with the framework conditions for face-to-face examinations, supervision may also be provided for online examinations. If video proctoring is planned for online examinations, students will be informed of this in advance by the responsible teacher. (The points below also apply to oral online examinations via video conferencing system).
- Supervision of online examinations can be implemented by means of a video conferencing tool hosted on the servers of the CAU Computer Centre.
- Recording the examination or otherwise storing the image or sound data is not permitted.
- A webcam or mobile phone camera, for example, is required for video surveillance. Depending on the supervision concept, a second camera (e.g. mobile phone camera) may also be required. Only the area relevant for proctoring purposes should be shown on the video clips, e.g. the workstation (examinee, desk surface, keyboard, etc.), in order to ensure, for example, as in a face-to-face examination with proctoring, that only the permitted aids are used and that the examination is processed independently.
- The use of a virtual background is not permitted for "video examinations".
- If students do not agree to the concept of video supervision due to data protection concerns, they can contact their teacher so that it can be checked whether an alternative examination can be found. If this is not possible, e.g. for organisational reasons, the next attendance examination date can be used.
- If students have given their consent to an examination with video supervision, they can revoke this at any time with effect for the future vis-à-vis the responsible teacher. Consent is usually obtained via stu-Mail or OpenOLAT. The respective teacher in charge informs the students about the procedure.
Compensation for disadvantages
If you do not have the technical requirements, you have the option of applying for disadvantage compensation. (See Compensation for disadvantages)
Authentication at the beginning of an exam
The CAU-Card is usually required for authentication at the beginning of an examination. In the event that you do not have a CAU-Card or, for example, a validation was not possible, you can also identify yourself using an identity card or a passport.
Viewing of examinations
According to § 26 PVO, students have a right to inspect their examination documents. Please inform yourself at the examination office responsible for you or the respective teacher in which form the inspection can be organised for an examination under the current pandemic conditions.
According to the state ordinance on special measures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 at universities, libraries remain open for certain purposes (see section on libraries). These purposes include, among others, the preparation of term papers during the course of studies, so that there are currently no restrictions here.
In principle, it is possible to apply for an extension of the processing time of homeworks, theses, etc. if, for example, due to closed libraries and laboratories or a lack of childcare facilities for children under 14 years of age (see also "Schools and Kindergarten"), processing is not possible or only possible to a limited extent. An application must be submitted to the Examinations Office.
Submission of term papers and theses
The main gate is constantly manned, so that theses and so on can be handed in on time here.
Changed examination periods
winter semester 2020/21 and summer semester 2021 for Bachelor and Master programmes
Due to the continuing pandemic conditions, the examination periods for the winter semester 2020/21 and the summer semester 2021 for the Bachelor's and Master's programmes had to be rescheduled differently from the previously announced periods. There is a need for three-week examination periods. The following examination periods have been established with the participation of the various interest groups:
- 1st examination period of the winter semester 2020/21: 15.02.2021 - 06.03.2021 (week 7 - 9)
- 2nd examination period of the winter semester 2020/21: 29.03.2021 - 17.04.2021 (week 13 - 15)
- 1st examination period of the summer semester 2021: 02.08.2021 - 21.08.2021 (week 31 - 33)
- 2nd examination period of the summer semester 2021: 04.10.2021 - 23.10.2021 (week 40 - 42)
Different regulations apply to state examination programmes.
The University Board as well as the deans and deans of studies of all faculties, have decided on the basis of the Corona Higher Education Supplementary Regulation (Corona-HEVO): A free attempt will be granted for all examinations taken and not passed in the summer semester 2021. This includes, among other things, examinations on site, term papers and examinations during courses; this regulation does not apply to final theses. Thus, the regulations already applied in the winter semester will be adopted unchanged for the summer semester.
- The free attempt regulation covers examinations which are assigned to the summer semester 2021 but which take place at a later date for organisational reasons, in particular for examinations in the 2nd examination period of the summer semester 2021.
- For students who care for or look after children under the age of 14 and whose learning or examination situation is significantly impeded due to the closure of schools and day-care facilities, any examination taken and not passed in the summer semester 2021 is considered a free attempt.
- The free attempt regulation refers to university examinations. Free attempts cannot be granted for examinations within the framework of the state examination, as these are not subject to the regulations of the Higher Education Act and thus also not to those of the Corona HEVO.
- A fail by not appearing also leads to a free attempt.
- Exception: Please take into account the different different regulations for special examinations at the Faculty of Law (German only).
- Failed exams due to an attempt to cheat do NOT result in a free attempt.
Note for students
Please take into account that the lecturers and the examination offices have a significantly higher workload than in regular semesters due to the free attempt regulations, and due to the other challenges in organisation and teaching related with the Corona measures. In order to be considerate and avoid planning difficulties, we therefore ask you to only register for examinations for which you have prepared and which you wish to take. If you will not be taking an exam at short notice, please inform the respective examiners and the Examinations Office, especially in the case of oral exams, so that this can be taken into account when organising the exams. Please also understand that it may take longer to respond to enquiries or that complications may arise with online examinations. In the case of examinations on site, you will be informed in good time before the respective date about the hygiene rules then applicable.
Note for lecturers
As in the winter semester 2020/21, the Corona free attempt is recorded by the lecturers in the course of recording the grades by entering the note "CFP". The handout from the winter semester 2020/21 can be found at the usual place in OpenOLAT.
At the Faculty of Theology the courses are primarily offered digitally. If conditions permit, the digital offerings can be supplemented by individual presence elements. Information on selected courses taught in classroom format can be found in the course catalogue of the Faculty of Theology, current news on the winter semester can be found on the Faculty's website.
Information on courses taught in classroom format can be found in good time in the course catalog and on the website of the Faculty of Law. Under Online Teaching in Kiel you will find an overview of the courses in the winter semester 2020/2021 with instructions on how to dial into the individual courses or how to access the lecture videos.
In order to meet the special needs of the study of medicine and dentistry, face-to-face teaching will be offered in addition to digital teaching. Rules of hygiene have a priority. Lectures are offered purely digitally as stream and/or remote video. Seminars, practical courses and examination courses take place in hybrid form with attendance parts in small groups and digital parts. The patient-oriented teaching is supplemented by exercises on the model and with digital learning courses. In addition, various digital discussion forums have been set up. Further information on the website of the Faculty of Medicine
The winter semester 2020/21 primarily takes place digitally. In the Faculty of Arts and Humanities, the Dean's Office has developed criteria for presence elements within this digital teaching. Presence teaching takes place in individual cases, only if online teaching is not possible. Students will receive information with the concrete notes on the respective course.
In all of the German and English language courses of study offered by the faculty, lectures and large seminars are realised in the winter semester as digital teaching-learning events. Detailed regulations and information are available on the Corona pandemic information page on the website of the Faculty of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences: or in English.
The lectures, seminars and exercises primarily take place digitally (synchronous or asynchronous). Practical training in the laboratory, in the field or during excursions can take place in attendance, regarding the current rules of hygiene. These forms of practical exercises are an essential part of scientific teaching. The individual subjects provide information on their respective websites about the modules with practical contents (small groups). Central Corona website of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
At the Faculty of Business, Economics, and Social Sciences all lectures are offered digitally. Individual presence elements are possible, if the conditions allow it. In the interest of joint scientific work, teaching and learning in presence may be made possible in smaller seminars and exercises and on a voluntary basis. We therefore ask you to pay attention to the announcements of the individual courses in UnivIS und in OpenOlat zu beachten.
The aim of the Federal State of Schleswig-Holstein and the university is to avoid delays in the completion of studies as far as possible, despite the current tightened Corona measures. In order to ensure this during the lockdown, the following library services of the Central Library will be maintained:
- Lending of a maximum of 10 books per day. Opening hours for lending: Mon-Fri 9.00-18.30 and Sat 11.00-16.30
- Books can be returned during the lending hours or via the letterbox at the Central Library.
- Individual workstations and carrels are available with online reservation)
- The service desk is still open Mon-Fri 9.00-18.30 and Sat 11.00-16.30.
For the scope of current services in the subject libraries of the faculties, seminars and institutes, please refer to the websites of the respective institutions.
- Function equipment and rooms
- Guided tours and trainings
- Historical holdings
- Individual workstations on a first-come-first-served basis
- Information Desk
- On-site submission of dissertations – please send by post
- Self-pick-up of print resources in our open stacks areas
- Special stocks
Please address your individual concerns to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The deadline for proof of Bachelor's degree in the summer semester 2021 has been extended from June 10 to September 30. Further information can be found on the pages of the Student Services (German only)
In accordance with Section 15 (1) of the Maternity Protection Act (MuSchG), if you become pregnant you should report this to the relevant office (German only) and to the teacher who is responsible for the course. Particularly in the current pandemic situation, special precautions are required for face-to-face events. In order to enable compliance with such precautions, and to prevent any potential danger to pregnant women and/or unborn children as far as possible, please fulfil this reporting obligation. Even if you have already reported the pregnancy, please also contact the teacher responsible once again well in advance of the planned participation in face-to-face teaching events.
Members of risk groups and pregnant women have the opportunity to apply for compensation for disadvantages. Further information can be found under the heading compensation for disadvantages.
If, due to the lack of childcare facilities for children under 14 years of age, it is not possible or only possible to a limited extent to attend a course that requires attendance, it is possible to apply for compensation for disadvantages. It is also possible to apply for an extension of the time required to complete homework, theses or similar. A copy of the birth certificate must be submitted as proof.
§103 of the HSG also applies to the summer semester 2021
For regulations under higher education law which are linked to the duration of the Regestudies or the number of semesters, the higher education institution does not consider the summer semester 2020, the wintersemester 2020/21 and the summer semester 2021 as a "Fachsemester". The higher education institutions issue students with a certificate stating that they were unable to submit performance certificates or examination papers due to the pandemic and that this delayed the completion of their studies by one semester. This does not affect the regulations on state examinations. (Source, German only)
The Corona Higher Education Law Supplement Ordinance (Corona-HEVO) stipulates that Section 103 of the Higher Education Act also applies to the summer semester 2021. For this reason, the CAU does not count the summer semester 2021 as a “Fachsemester” for regulations under higher education law that are linked to the standard period of study or the number of “Fachsemester” (e.g. invitation to compulsory study guidance).
- The semester count will be continued on the CAU certificates (e.g. course of study certificate). The CAU will shortly provide a certificate for download for the summer semester 2021 via the CAU portal (www.uni-kiel.de/hisinone) in accordance with § 103 (2) HSG. This certifies that studies may be delayed due to the Corona pandemic. It can be attached to the study progress certificate if required.
- The exemption regulation also applies to regulations under education funding law that are linked to the standard period of study or the number of semesters. Please contact the Office for Educational Funding (Amt für Ausbildungsförderung) (www.studentenwerk.sh/de/ueber-uns/corona/bafoeg.html) or your scholarship-granting institution if you have any questions regarding the procedure, evidence to be submitted, etc.
If students, teachers or other employees are in affected regions with the support of the Erasmus+ programme (all lines of funding), then any costs arising or already incurred due to changes in the travel plans of affected persons are regarded as "force majeure" and are thus fully refundable. Affected regions are those designated as such by the respective national authorities, so in Germany those on the list of the RKI (German only) and/or the Foreign Office (German only).
For the assessment of the situation and the planning of further steps, all travel information on the pages of the Federal Foreign Office (German only) on the coronavirus, both travel warnings and entry and quarantine regulations for travellers from Germany in numerous destination countries, must be observed and documented in detail. Furthermore, German citizens are strongly recommended to register in the electronic registration system of the Federal Foreign Office by Germans abroad "Elefand" (German only).
Other stays abroad
Stays in the risk areas are strongly discouraged. Some of the partner universities there are currently closed anyway. Further developments should be awaited regarding planned visits, for example those which should begin in the autumn. Flight bookings etc. should not be made yet. The colleagues at the International Center are available to help with any other questions.
DAAD informs about funding programmes | Information for scholarship holders and applicants
The DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) provides important information about programmes and for individual target groups, which is updated regularly. Please keep yourself informed. Detailed information is also available on the webpresence of the ERASMUS+ programme (all funding lines) (German only).
Note: The links refer to FAQ's of the DAAD, which are always updated
Kiel University currently offers students a limited number of individual workstations on campus outside the libraries for exam preparation. This offer is primarily aimed at students who are unable to switch home in time for a subsequent online course after attending classroom lectures. The individual workstations are also available to students who do not have the prerequisites for trouble-free participation in online courses at home.
The basis for this is § 3 Para. 2 of the Higher Education Corona Ordinance.
Monday to Sunday from 07:00 to 21:00
The following rooms are available from Monday to Sunday from 07:00 to 21:00 during the winter semester:
- Wilhelm-Seelig-Platz 3, seminar rooms 1, 2, 3 and 9.
The keys for these rooms are given out at the main gate. Registration for the rooms also takes place there.
Monday to Friday from 08:00 to 18:00
The following rooms are available during the winter semester from Monday to Friday from 08:00 to 18:00:
- Boschstraße 1, rooms EG.003, EG.005, EG.006, EG.007, EG.008.
The keys for these rooms are also given out at the main gate. Registration for these rooms also takes place there.
Monday to Friday from 08:00 to 14:00:
The following rooms are available during the winter semester from Monday to Friday from 08:00 to 14:00:
- Leibnizstr.1, R.104b, R.106b, R.208a/b
- Olshausenstr. 75, S1/R.413, S1/R415, S3/R31, S3/R.184, S3/R.185
Here, the keys are handed over by the janitor in charge in the building. Registration for the rooms also takes place there.
As part of the digital data acquisition process, please register when entering the rooms using the QR code, which is hung up in the entrance area of the rooms.
Due to current hygiene requirements, only one person is allowed in each of the rooms mentioned. If, during an inspection by the janitor/guard, it is found that rooms are being used by several people at the same time, all persons present will be asked to leave the room.
Thank you for your understanding - also towards the persons (security service and caretaker) who have to monitor and implement these requirements.