Did globalisation already begin in the Neolithic?
Where did the copper come from?
Copper use and knowledge exchange
The early establishment of copper metallurgy, however, was not a sustainable process, even though it occurred in what are understood by experts to have been Copper Age societies. For despite an import boom, the metal and the knowledge of its processing did not become established in the Neolithic societies of the fourth millennium BCE. Rather, they became almost meaningless. It was not until the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age that Norse societies integrated copper metallurgy into their economic system in such a way that these societies reached a “point of no return” with regard to metallurgy, and increasingly used metal artefacts as tools in their subsistence economy, as well as to represent power structures.
Jan Piet Brozio, Zofia Stos-Gale, Johannes Müller, Nils Müller-Scheeßel, Sebastian Schultrich, Barbara Fritsch, Fritz Jürgens, Henry Skorna, The Origin of Neolithic Copper on the Central Northern European Plain and in Southern Scandinavia: Connectivities on a European Scale, PLOS ONE (2023). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0283007