PATERN 16.09.96
PATERN is a computer program for the calculation of paternity
probabilities from multilocus DNA profiles. An appropriate
reference to the mathematical model employed is
Krawczak M, Bockel B (1992) A genetic factor model for the
statistical analysis of multilocus DNA fingerprints.
Electrophoresis 13: 10-17.
Once the program has been started and the major layout has appeared
on the screen, various options are available. These options are
activated by hitting the corresponding keys, as indicated in brackets.
For example, uit means that, after hitting either the q-key or
the Q-key, the show is over.
Options
dit pattern - Enter and edit the frequency of the position-wise
DNA fingerprint patterns. The window for editing is moved up
and down using the cursor keys. Within the window, the cursor
is moved left or right using the cursor keys as well. Type
^X to finish editing (i.e. press or and X-key
simultaneously). Likelihoods and paternity probabilities will
be updated automatically.
Usually, the total number of gel positions analyzed is determined
automatically as the sum of the frequencies of the eight possible
DNA fingerprint patterns. However, when the program is started
using option S, i.e. when
patern s
is entered at the DOS prompt, the total number of gel positions
can be edited. Then, the number of '---' patterns is calculated
automatically. Inconsistencies are eliminated in that the number
of '---' patterns is set equal to zero, and the total number of
gel positions is determined as the sum of the frequencies of
the remaining seven patterns.
If the program is started using option A, i.e. entering
patern a
from DOS, then neither the number of '---' patterns nor the
total number of positions can be edited. In this case, the
bandsharing between mother and putative father is determined
from patterns including at least one '+', and the number of
'---' is chosen such that the bandsharing rate equals the
probability of appearence of a band (see below). The latter
can not be edited.
ppearence prob. - Enter or estimate the probability of appearence
of a band at a single gel position (i.e. the band sharing
probability). This figure can either be estimated from the maternal
and paternal DNA fingerprints (~~), or can be entered and edited
manually ().
utation prob. - Enter or edit the mutation probability (i.e.
the probability of observing an offspring band at a position where
a band is lacking in both parental fingerprints). The default value
is 0.001 which represents a good estimate for a variety of typing
systems in humans.
Paternity probabilities of 0.00000% or 100.00000% are due to
the fixed decimal format (maximum = 5 digits). The precise
probability can be computed from the LOG10(LIKELIHOOD-RATIO) (LR)
using the following formula:
P x 10^LR
W = 100 x -----------------
P x 10^LR + (1-P)
where P is the prior probability of paternity.
Best wishes
MK
~~